Encyclopedia of Language and Literacy Development
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Glossary (A - Z)
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Validity
The degree to which test questions actually measure what they are designed to test.
Verb
A word used to express actions, events or states of being (e.g., runs, eats).
Verbal memory
The ability to retain speech or language information for a designated time period.
Verbal sentences
Sentences expressed in spoken words.
Verbal Short-term memory
Also referred to as working memory; the memory that holds information for a short amount of time.
Visual perception
The ability to interpret information and surroundings from the effects of visible light reaching the eye.
Visual word-form area
An area of the brain thought to be responsible for amassing and processing combinations of letters and their meanings into coherent words of a given language.
Visual-orthographic skills
The skills pertaining to the ability to recognize the appropriate orientation of letters and numbers.
Visual-spatial knowledge
Knowledge pertaining to the perception of the spatial relationships between objects in one's field of vision.
Vocabulary
The stock of words used by or known to an individual.
Vocalic inventories
The collection of vowel sounds in a language (e.g., English has 20 vowel sounds in its inventory).
Vocalic paraphasia
The production of incorrect vowels in a word.
Voiceless pharyngeal fricative
A consonant which is like h but is produced slightly higher in the vocal tract than h (in the pharynx rather than at the glottis).