Encyclopedia of Language and Literacy Development
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Glossary (A - Z)
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Health literacy
The ability to access, understand, evaluate and communicate information as a way to promote, maintain and improve health in a variety of settings across the life-course (Rootman & Gordon-El-Bihbety, 2008).
Hearing acuity fluctuations
Any persistent and unpredictable changes in hearing ability.
Hemisphere
Either of the two symmetrical halves of the brain. Each hemisphere is responsible for different body functions and skills.
Hereditary disorder
Disorder of genetic origin, inherited from one’s parents.
Heritability
The passing of a disorder from one generation to the next.
Heritage languages
Languages other than a country’s official language.
Heterogeneous/Heterogeneity
A group composed of those who have differing characteristics or are of differing abilities in terms of performance.
High quality intervention studies
Studies that include standardized or criterion-based testing before and after the intervention, an adequate control group, random assignment of participants to intervention group, and a sufficient number of participants.
Higher-order cognition
Processes such as reasoning and problem solving.
Hippocampus
An area in the brain that helps regulate emotion and memory.
Home programming
Materials, activities and suggestions provided by a professional such as a Speech-Language Pathologist to be worked on at home for a specified period of time instead of treatment.
Homogenous groupings
A group composed of those who are all the same or of similar abilities in terms of performance.
Homophone
A word that is pronounced the same as another word but is spelled differently and has a different meaning (e.g., your, you're).
Hypernasality
A resonance disorder characterized by production of more nasal airflow than normal during speech.
Hypothesis testing
A strategy used by readers when they combine both relevant information from the text and their background knowledge in order to make progress in their reading. Readers form a tentative hypothesis (interpretation) about what they are reading and then as they read on, they confirm, disconfirm, or revise their interpretation to fit the newly available information.