Encyclopedia of Language and Literacy Development
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Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS)
The Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale - Revised (ECERS-R; Harms, Clifford & Cryer, 1998) provides a global measure of preschool classroom quality with 43 items that cover a broad range of quality considerations from safety to teacher-child interaction to parent involvement. See http://ers.fpg.unc.edu/node/82 for more details. 
 
Effect size
A measure of intervention effectiveness, which can be thought of as the ratio of the change in performance to the underlying variability already seen in the sample. The bigger the effect size, the more effective the intervention. Traditionally, effect sizes of 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 are considered to have small, moderate and large effects, respectively (Cohen, 1988).
Electropalatography (EPG)
A diagnostic and speech therapy procedure for articulation disorders, which provides visual feedback to children during articulation practice. It involves a computer display of the position and timing of tongue contacts with a custom-made artificial palate into which a row of electrodes is embedded (Gibbon, Stewart, & Hardcastle, 1999).
Emergent literacy
The skills, knowledge and attitudes that precede and help to develop conventional reading and writing.
Emphatic
A consonant that is produced with a secondary articulation in the pharynx (produced using constriction of the pharynx) and a primary articulation further forward in the mouth. It is also referred to as a ‘pharyngealized’ consonant.
Empirical evidence
Evidence that is not dependent on the observer (i.e., is objective), and that appears the same no matter who observes the evidence.
Empirical research
Scientifically based research that applies rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain valid knowledge that can be generalized. This type of research draws on observation or experiement and has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by an independent panel that conducts a comparable, objective scientific review.
Empirical studies
Studies that use working hypotheses that are testable using observation or experiment.
Enumeration
To count or to determine the number or amount. Involves the understanding (a) that anything can be counted, (b) that number words should be uttered in the proper counting sequence, and (c) of the one-to-one principle (Ginsburg, 1989).
Epidemiological studies
Statistical studies on human populations which attempt to link human health effects to a specified cause.
Epidemiology
The study of the causes, distribution and control of disorders within a population.
Equivalence
The relational meaning between two equal quantities (Carpenter, Franke, & Levi, 2003).
Estimation
To approximate the exact value of an operation.
Ethernet
The most common type of connection computers use in a local area network to passively carry data through cables to everywhere throughout the network.
Ethnographic
A qualitative research method for gathering objective data that is often done through participant observation, interviews, questionnaires, etc.
Etiological factors
The agent that can be assigned as the cause or reason for a disorder.
Etiology
The cause or origin of a disorder.
Evidence-based practice
Practice and decision making based on evidence from relevant research study outcomes.  


Evidence-based research
Research undertaken for the purpose of finding evidence to guide clinical decision making.
Executive control/functions
A collection of brain processes responsible for planning, cognitive flexibility, abstract thinking, initiation of appropriate actions and inhibition of inappropriate actions.
Existential sentence
A sentence that is started by "there" and asserts the existance or nonexistance of something.
Expansions
In language development, when an adult expands on a child’s statement by adding details and grammatical information. This additional information can help with a child’s grammatical development (e.g., Child says, “Kitty house” and adult responds with, “The kitty is in the house.”). Expansions are similar to recasts.
Experimental studies
Studies that consist of randomized control trials or single subject designs.
Explicit
When something is stated directly and clearly.
Expressive language disorder
A difficulty in an individualís ability to produce written or spoken language.
Expressive language/language production
The ability to produce language in any of a number of different modalities such as speech, sign or writing.
Expressive vocabulary
All the words that one can produce and use for speaking or writing.
Extensions
During language development, when an adult comments on what a child has said with additional information. This type of commenting may help to increase a child’s sentence length (e.g., Child says, “Kitty house” and adult responds with, “Yes, the kitty went inside because he was cold.”)
External scaffolding
An instructional strategy by which adults or more able peers provide supportive structures to help children learn.
Externalizing behaviour
A group of conditions characterized by one or more of the following: aggression, attention problems, delinquency, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct problems.